Key considerations

Downward Air Movement

Occasionally, there can be downward air movement if the air is cold.

Wind Forces

Wind forces are affected by wind speed, wind direction and the shape of the building.


Cross-ventilation occurs when wind blows air through a room or building which has openings (for example windows) on opposite sides.

Single-Sided Ventilation

Single-sided ventilation occurs when there are one or more openings (such as a window or a door) on one side only.

Healthy Standards

To ensure a well-ventilated workplace general ventilation should be provided that removes stale, contaminated, or hot and humid air so that occupants do not suffer any ill-health effects. It may be worth considering using effective natural and/or mechanical general ventilation to provide the fresh air supply.

If the contaminant is of a low toxicity and produced in such low concentrations that it would be impractical and costly to use Local Exhaust Ventilation (LEV), it may be worth considering using general ventilation as part of the control strategy. 

Sontay Smart Sensors are a success at Maltese school

Case Study

A primary school in Malta is now benefitting from closer control and improved energy efficiency through a sophisticated Building Energy Management System (BEMS).

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